The EMRP Gravity Theory

© Engineer Xavier Borg - Blaze Labs Research


History of older wave models

The idea of waves imparting momentum upon matter to describe the gravity mechanism is not new, and other well known scientists have studied such models over the past 200 years.


Keller and Boisbaudran 1863

In 1863 F.A.E. and Em. Keller presented a theory by using a Le Sage type mechanism in combination with longitudinal waves of the aether. They supposed that those waves are propagating in every direction and losing some of their momentum after the impact on bodies, so between two bodies the pressure exerted by the waves is weaker than the pressure around them. In 1869 L. de Boisbaudran presented the same model as Leray (including absorption and the production of heat etc.), but like Keller he replaced the particles with longitudinal waves of the aether.


Crookes 1873

From some very ingenious and interesting experiments made by William Crookes, in 1873, with light disks attached to a delicate torsionbalance and hermetically sealed within a nearly perfect vacuum, in which experiments the radiation of heat was observed to exert a repulsive effect upon the blackened side of the disks, he inferred that a clue was thereby probably furnished to the mystery of gravitation. He thus concludes his first memoir :'It is not unlikely that in the experiments here recorded may be found the key of some as yet unsolved problems in celestial mechanics...It may be said that a force like this must alter our ordinary ideas of gravitation ; but it must be remembered that we only know the force of gravity between bodies such as they actually exist, and we do not know what this force would be if the temperatures of the gravitating masses were to undergo A change. If the sun is gradually cooling, possibly its attractive force is increasing, but the rate will be so slow that it will probably not be detected by our present means of research.'


Laplace 1880

Laplace seems to be the first person to propose a modification of Newton's law of gravity with an exponential term, and that the correct equation for the force of gravity acting between two bodies is given by:

F= [Gm1m2/r2]e-μr

where λ would be an absorption coefficient of gravity. In order for this law to agree with the experimental observations of the orbits of the planets, Laplace calculated an upper bound for λ in the solar system equal to μ<10-6/AU, where 1AU=1.5E11m, or in metric form μ<6.67e-18/m. Later on, various experimental results from other researchers in this field show that different upper bounds for λ are obtained for different materials, and hence, that λ is not a constant but a function of the characteristics of m1 and m2. For example, in 1920, Majorana had reported μ<9e-11/m for liquid mercury. In fact most later researchers including Bottlinger (1912) and Majorana (1920) assumed μ to be a function directly proportional to material density and replaced the constant μ by the product λρ, λ being the new constant in m2/kg, and ρ being the density. This modified Laplace equation into the form:

F= [Gm1m2/r2]e-λρr


Hendrik Antoon Lorentz 1900

After these attempts other authors substituted electromagnetic radiation for Le Sage’s particles early 1900s. This was in connection with the Lorentz ether theory and the electron theory of that time, in which the electrical constitution of matter was assumed.

In 1900 Hendrik Lorentz wrote, that Le Sage's particle model is not consistent with the electron theory of his time. But the detection that trains of electromagnetic waves could produce some pressure in combination with the penetrating power of Röntgen rays (now called x-rays), led him to the conclusion, that nothing is speaking against the possible existence of an even more penetrating radiation then x-rays, which could replace Le Sage's particles. Lorentz showed that an attractive force between charged particles (which might be taken to model the elementary subunits of matter) would indeed arise, but only if the incident energy were entirely absorbed. This was the same fundamental problem which had afflicted the particle models. So Lorentz wrote:

'The circumstance however, that this attraction could only exist, if in some way or other electromagnetic energy were continually disappearing, is so serious a difficulty, that what has been said cannot be considered as furnishing an explanation of gravitation. Nor is this the only objection that can be raised. If the mechanism of gravitation consisted in vibrations which cross the aether with the velocity of light, the attraction ought to be modified by the motion of the celestial bodies to a much larger extend than astronomical observations make it possible to admit.'

In 1922 Lorentz first examined Martin Knudsen's investigation on rarefied gases and in connection with that he discussed Le Sage's particle model, followed by a summary of his own electromagnetic Le Sage model - but he repeated his conclusion from 1900: Without absorption no gravitational effect.


J.J. Thomson 1904

In 1904 J. J. Thomson considered a Le Sage-type model in which the primary ultramundane flux consisted of a hypothetical form of radiation much more penetrating even than x-rays. He argued that Maxwell's heat problem might be avoided by assuming that the absorbed energy is not be converted into heat, but re-radiated in a still more penetrating form. He noted that this process possibly can explain where the energy of radioactive substances is coming from - however, he stated that an internal cause of radioactivity is more probable. In 1911 Thomson went back to this subject in his article "Matter" in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.[37] There he stated, that this form of secondary radiation is somewhat analogous to how the passage of electrified particles through matter causes the radiation of the even more penetrating x-rays. He remarked:

'It is a very interesting result of recent discoveries that the machinery which Le Sage introduced for the purpose of his theory has a very close analogy with things for which we have now direct experimental evidence....Röntgen rays, however, when absorbed do not, as far as we know, give rise to more penetrating Rontgen rays as they should to explain attraction, but either to less penetrating rays or to rays of the same kind.'


Tommasina and Brush 1911

Unlike Lorentz and Thomson, Thomas Tommasina between 1903 and 1928 suggested long wavelength radiation to explain gravity, and short wave-length radiation for explaining the cohesive forces of matter. Charles F. Brush in 1911 also proposed long wavelength radiation. But he later revised his view and changed to extremely short wavelengths.


Summary

So, from the above models, we can summarise the following:

(1) The push feature of Le Sage theory has in all cases been retained
(2) Electromagnetic (EM) waves are required in order for the gravity mechanism to be compatible with the electron theory
(3) The existence of EM waves with higher energy than today's known upper limit is not contoversial and highly probable
(4) Gravitational effect requires absorption
(5) Heat dissipation can be avoided if incoming waves are converted to higher frequencies (highly improbable)
(6) Heat dissipation can be avoided if incoming waves are somehow continuously disappearing into the target matter
(7) Most came to the conclusion that the radiation has to be of extremely high frequency
(8) For electromagnetic radiation, Newton's law must be corrected by an exponential absorption function as originally proposed by Laplace

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